WLT: Word Learning Test

50.00

Test for verbal learning and memory, including active recall and passive recognition.

This is the 15 Word Learning Test with 7 pairs of parallel word lists, based on Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey, 1964). The words can be presented acoustically or visually by the pc and also in both modalities at the same time. It has been found that presentation mode has no effect on the memorization (Brand & Jolles, 1985).  Standard use involves 5 “direct recall” trials. In the settings part of Minds, the test leader can choose to have the recall typed in by the participant at the end of each trial. This can be done via the normal keyboard or a virtual keyboard (QWERTY or AZERTY) on the screen (in case of a touch screen). Reproduction of the words can also take place orally, with the test leader recording the recall or recording with a recording device. In the latter case afterwards the test leader can select the reaction words and enter them via the LeerCurve program (see the third figure below) in order to score the recall.

After completion of the immediate recall trials, the program returns to the main menu of Minds and a different test can be taken. If the WLT is opened the second time (according to the standard procedure, this should be done after about 20 minutes) the program jumps to the 2nd part of the test, in which the “delayed recall” trial and the recognition test take place. In the delayed recall trial (the words are NOT presented in this case) the words have to be reproduced again. The recognition test consists of 30 words (the 15 original and 15 new words), and the task is always to indicate with YES and NO (cursor buttons or buttons on the screen) whether a word was presented in the first part of the test or not . The words in this recognition test are displayed until the response is given, and both responses and response times are recorded.

The following is an overview of the (first 3 words of) 7 parallel Dutch word lists (for the complete lists and the corresponding distractor words (in the recognition lists), see the WLT.QC file (or the WLT_E.QC file for the English version). Words could be replaced by English words in this file. In the file there are 7 parallel lists A2, B2, etc. Those of the “neighbor lists” differ only in order of the words):

  • A1. MES, BANK, WOLF,…
  • B1. KAAS, HERT, STOEL,…
  • C1. STEEN, BALK, HOND,…
  • D1. PLANT, KNOOP, DOEK,…
  • E1. POORT, DUIF, GLAS,…
  • F1. LAMP, STIER, PEN,…
  • G1. BLOEM, SNOR, KROON,…

As a possible application for young children or people with memory disorders, the test can also be set as an 8, 10 or 12 word list.

The report of the results (graphically and in text) provides an overview of the learning curve and the data of the recognition test with response times and error rate.

The aforementioned learning curve tool (see the 2nd figure) is intended to check the recall words typed in by the participant and to correct them for typos or misspellings, wrong keystrokes, etc. With this tool the recall can easily be scored if the reproduction of the words were taken orally at the time of administration. The YES / NO answers to the recognition test of a traditional acoustic 15 Words Test can also be scored.

The normative information relates to the total score of the immediate and delayed recall, as well as to the accuracy scores and reaction times of the recognition test. There are norms of healthy volunteers from 20 to 80 years (in 4 age cohorts), of depressive patients, schizophrenia patients and of patients with an obsessive compulsive disorder. A comprehensive personal interpretation of the test results can be generated.

Literature:

  • Brand, N. and Jolles, J. (1985). Learning and Retrieval Rate of Words Presented Auditorily and Visually. Journal of General Psychology 112, 201-210.
  • Brand, A.N., Jolles, J. and Gispen-de Wied, C. (1992). Recall and Recognition Memory Deficits in Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 25, 77-86.
  • Rey, A. (1964). L’examen clinique en psychologie. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.